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Imirimo idahabwa agaciro iracyari inzitizi ku iterambere ry’abagore

Tuesday 3 December 2019, by : MUTESI Scovia
    Yasomwe na

Yanditswe na Mutesi Scovia

Iyo havuzwe imirimo abagore bakora idahabwa agaciro benshi batangira kwibaza abati ese aba bashaka guhembwa na nde, izi ni imvugo zikoreshwa iyo havuzwe iki kibazo, abandi bati iyo mirimo ubundi ni iyihe .

Iyo mirimo irimo; kuvoma amazi, kumesa, gushaka inkwi, guteka, kurera abana n’abantu bakuze, guhinga, kwita ku barwayi, gusura uwabyaye, gukubura n’indi mirimo itandukanye yo mu rugo ivunanye ariko idahabwa agaciro.

Akenshi usanga uyikora byitwa ko nta kazi agira, nyamara urebye iyo mirimo yose akora bimusaba kubyuka saa kumi n’imwe za mugitondo akaza kuryama saa mbili z’ijoro. Mu cyaro aya masaha buba bwije cyane bitandukanye no mu mugi.

Iyi mirimo ikomeza kubera abagore inzitizi mu kwiteza imbere, cyane cyane abagore bo mu cyaro aho bagorwa no kubona umwanya wo kujya mu mashyirahamwe kwifatanya n’abandi kugira ngo biteze imbere. Nkuko ubushakashatsi bwakozwe muri Gashyantare 2016 n’ikigo gishinzwe amakoperative mu Rwanda (RCA) bwagaragaje ko umubare w’abagana ibigo by’imari bamaze gufunguza konti, abagabo bari 51,5%, abagore bakaba 39, 5% na ho amatsinda akaba 9,1% . Iyi mibare yerekana ko gukora ku ifaranga ku bagore bikigoye.

Umunyamakuru wa mamaurwagasabo.rw yagiye mu Karere ka Ruhango mu Ntara y’amajyepfo, kuganira n’abagore kuri iki kibazo mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi.
Nyirandagijimana Marthe, ni umugore w’imyaka 35 y’amavuko, afite abana 4 atuye mu Karere ka Ruhango mu Murenge wa Ntongwe mu Kagari ka Kayenzi, umudugudu wa Kanyete. Imirimo yo mu rugo ayitangira mu gitondo, bukira ataruhutse kuko aryama ku manywa igihe yarwaye.

Yagize ati “Mbyuka saa kumi n’imwe nkakubura ku muryango no mu gikari, aho twaraye dutekeye, nkabyutsa abana bakajya kwiga ubwo n’umugabo akaba arabyutse tukajya guhinga, umwana muto nkamuheka tukajyana, iyo duhinguye nshakisha udukwi two gucana nkatuzamukana, umugabo we aba yagiye nkamusanga mu rugo amaze koga ibirenge no guhanagura isuka uburimiro.

Nkamugaburira ubwo n’abana baba bavuye ku ishuri, ibyo kurya byaraye ni byo nshyushya, umugabo we aryamaho gato akabyuka akajya ku gasantere aho abandi bari, ubwo jye nkajya kuvoma navayo nkamesa utwenda tw’abana duke noneho nkamanuka mu mirima nkatera intabire twahinze narangiza nkazamukana ibyo guteka nijoro. Iyo nshyize inkono ku ziko nkarabya abana twahisha tukarya ubwo n’umugabo aba atashye tukaryama nka saa mbiri z’ijoro.”

Nyirandagijimana akomeza avuga ko niyo bagiye kuryama hari izindi shingano agomba kubahiriza ugasanga nta mwanya agira wo kuruhuka, ariko yizeye ko ubwo abana batangiye gukura imirimo izagabanuka, kandi ngo n’umugabo ashobora kuzaba yaramenye ko kuvoma atari uburozi uba wahawe n’umugore ahubwo ari ubufatanye hagati y’abashakanye.

Ati “Icyo gihe wenda nzaba mfite icyo nkora cyinjiza amafaranga kuko hari igihe mu nama ajyamo aza ambwira ko babigisha gufasha abagore imirimo yo mu rugo, jyewe izo nama simbona umwanya wo kuzijyamo”.

iyi mirimo iracyi ihurizo kubagore bo mu cyaro

Uretse kuba ari imvune k’uyikora, imutwara n’umwanya munini w’akazi yakabaye akora gahemberwa, kazana n’inyungu kagafasha ugakoze, umuryango muri rusange n’igihugu kigatera imbere kuko yajya atanga n’imisoro.
Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Action Aid Rwanda mu 2015, bwagaragaje ko abagore 91% bo mu Rwanda bakora imirimo idahabwa agaciro nk’akazi ka buri munsi. 41% by’igihe cya buri munsi cy’abagore bakimarira mu mirimo irimo gutora inkwi no kuvoma amazi.

Iyi mirimo ntigoye abagore batize birirwa mu rugo gusa, n’abakora mu nzego zifata ibyemezo irabagoye

Uyu twahimbye Mukamana ni umunyamabanga nshingwabikorwa w’umwe mu mirenge yo mu Ntara y’amajyepfo, yavuze ko atakwemera kugaragara mw’itangazamakuru kuko byatuma abaturage bamutera ikizere kandi ari we ubigisha ubufatanye hagati y’abashakanye, ni yo mpamvu twamuhimbye izina.

Mukamana yagize ati “ N’ubwo tubyuka tujya ku kazi jye n’umugabo, jye mbyuka mbere ngategura abana no kureba ifunguro rya mugitondo n’imyenda tugenda twambaye, umugabo na we akabyuka tukajya mu kazi. Iyo karangiye nimugoroba ntaha nihuta gukoresha abana umukoro bakuye Ku ishuri, nkareba niba umukozi yateguye ifunguro rya nijoro, iyo nsanze atabikoze, urugero atazi nko guteka ubugari ndabuteka, umugabo we aba yanyuze ahantu n’abandi bagabo baganira, akaza turya turyama. N’iyo ntashye bwije usanga avuga ko yabuze umugaburira bivuze ko na byo abibona nk’akazi nshinzwe”.

Uyu twise Mukamana akomeza avuga ko umuco ari ikibazo aho bazi ko iyo mirimo ari iy’abagore.
Yagize ati “ usanga n’imirimo dukoresha abana mu rugo turobanura igitsina, ugasanga umwana w’umuhungu abuzwa na se koza ibyo baririyeho ise ati “ariko aha nta bakobwa bahaba? Umwana akabireka, uwo ni we mugabo w’ejo nta cyo azafasha uwo azashaka kuko atabitojwe. Nsanga hakwiye kubaho kwigisha abana ariko n’ababyeyi bakarera abana kimwe babatoza imirimo imwe”.

Ibi bivugwa bigaragazwa na Raporo ya Oxfam igaragaza ko mu myaka mito, abahungu bakora imirimo idahabwa agaciro amasaha 3.8 ku munsi, abakobwa bakayikora amasaha 4.8. ibi bishobora kugaragaza isuyra y’iki kibazo ku Rwanda rw’ejo hatagize ikikorwa.

Nubwo hakigaragara iyi mirimo Leta y’uRwanda yashyizeho amategeko isinya n’amasezerano agamije kwimakaza uburinganire ya Beijing. Aya ni amasezerano mpuzamahanga yashyizweho mu mwaka 1995 mu rwego rwo kwimakaza ihame ry’uburinganire n’uburenganzira bw’umugore n’umwana w’umukobwa. Hari ibihugu byayashyize mu bikorwa birimo uRwanda ruza ku isonga.

Mu Rwanda, itegekonshinga ryacu rigena uburyo abagore bajya mu myanya ifata ibyemezo, aho mirongo itatu kw’ijana baba ari gitsina gore 30% ndetse no mu bigo byigenga bisabwa kubahiriza iri tegeko nubwo bikigenda buhoro.

Hashyizweho guhemba abikorera bubahiriza 30% byabagore bakoresha mu bigo byabo, ikindi kuba mu mwaka wa 2008 harashyizweho urwego rugenzura ko ihame ry’uburingani ryubahirizwa (Gender monitoring office) inama y’igihugu y’abagore ndetse na Minisiteri y’uburinganire n’iterambere ry’umuryango hatorwa n’ amategeko arengera abagore harimo iry’ubutaka, ko umugabo n’umugore banganya uburenganzira ku mutungo kandi umwana w’umukobwa akazungura nka basazabe, n’icyiruhuko cy’amezi atatu k’umugore wabyaye kandi agakomeza guhembwa ibyo byose ni ibizamura abagore mu mibereho myiza.

Ese abagabo iyi mirimo bayifata nk’ivunanye kubagore?
Mugarura Emmanuel, ni umugabo w’imyaka 40 y’amavuko, atuye mu Karere ka Ruhango mu Murenge wa Ntongwe. We avuga ko iriya mirimo ikenewe gukorwa ariko ngo ntivunanye kurusha iyo abagabo bakora.

Yagize ati “Nkanjye njyana n’umugore guhinga iyo duhinguye njya kumenya niba hari aho nzakura ikiraka cyazana ifaranga kugira ngo tugure isabune, none ubwo umugore urera abana be ni we uvunika? Ahubwo nuko haje uburinganire bwirengagiza umuco, ubu koko natera intabire y’ibijumba nkavoma? ino ntibihaba iyo ni imirimo y’abagore”.

Abajijwe niba ayikoze hari icyo yaba
Ati “Ishyano ryaba riguye, nakongera kubona inzira nyuramo? Ino umugabo uvoma ni ufite igare kandi na we afite inka ye avomera, sinabikora na ba data ntibashakaga inkwi kandi ba mama babaga barera abana benshi”.

Mugarura akomeza avuga ko kuba abagore nta mafaranga bakorera nta cyo byamutwara, ahubwo ngo nibemere kurera abana bagume mu rugo nkuko umugani wabivugaga ko umugore ari mutima w’urugo.

Kuba hakiri iyi myumvire gutera imbere kw’abagore biragoye
Ni mu gihe kandi abagabo bamaze guhabwa inguzanyo bangana na 68,9% na ho abagore ni 26,8%, mu matsinda bageze kuri 4,3%. Ibi ni ibyerekana ko abagore bakora imirimo ihemberwa bacyiri bacye.

Mu Rwanda, mu nteko nshingamategeko, umutwe w’abadepite abagore barimo bangana na 61% mu gihe abagize guverinoma (abaminisitiri) bangana na 50%, abagore bari muri njyanama bayoboye uturere ni 38% , abagore bari mu butabera ni 40%.

Mu itangazamakuru mu Rwanda, abanyamakuru bahawe ikarita y’umwuga na( RMC) urwego rw’itangazamakuru rwigenzura barenga 1000, muri abo, abagore ni 244, ibinyamakuru biri mu Rwanda 160, ibyashinzwe n’abagore ni 18. Iyo urebye iyi mibare, igaragaza ko hari ubushake bwa politiki bwazamuye umugore nubwo iyi mirimo ikiri ikibazo.

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